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First reported by Belgian scientists in Nature in 1993, nanobody (Nb), is a variable domain of heavy chain of heavy-chain (VHH) antibody derived from camelids (camel, llama, alpaca, and their close relative species). It contains one VHH and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). The VHH crystal is a cylinder which is 2.5 nm in diameter and 4 nm in length and has a molecular weight of only 15 kDa, thus getting its name of Nb.
Photo source: International Journal of Nanomedicine 2016:11 3287-3303
Thanks to the microstructure, perfect antigen identification and bacteriophage selection, nanobody exhibits high affinity, high specificity, strong penetrability, and prones to genetical modification and expression. With completely available sequence, nanobody can be stably produced with high quality by recombinant expression in vitro, avoiding the inter-batch difference in traditional antibody production. With its unique physical and chemical stability, nanobody, as a new research tool, promises to be used in antibody drug research, basic medical research, diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as cancer and infectious disease.
Higher specificity of binding to targets
Better tissue penetration
Better tissue penetration
Simpler preparation, suitable for industrial large-scale production
Rapid and high-level expression in microorganisms
Shorter development cycles, higher stability
Easier to humanize the antibody

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